Wednesday, July 13, 2011

50 Branches of Biology

Biology is the science of very large trees. Because the extent of biological material studies, biology is subdivided into branches of science. Some branches of biology, among others:

1. Zoology, the study of animal
2. Botany, plant science that studies about
3. Physiology, The study of the physiology / function of body work
4. Anatomy or anatomy, the study of body parts
5. Genetics, the study of inheritance
6. Microbiology, the study of the organism
7. Bacteriology, the study of bacteria
8. Mikobiologi, the study of fungi
9. Evolution, the study of living things change over the long term.
10. Molecular Biology, the study of biology at the molecular level
11. Genetic engineering, the study of the nature of genetic manipulation
12. Ecology, the study of reciprocal relationships between living things and their environment
13. Taxonomy, systematic study of living things
14. Ikhtiologi, science that studies on fish
15. Malacology, the study of mollusks
16. Karsinologi, the study of crustacean
17. Ornithology, the study of birds
18. Entomology, the study of insect science
19. Protozoologi, the study of protozoa
20. Algologi, the study of algae
21. Limnology, the study of marsh
22. Embryology, the study of embryonic development
23. Pathology, the study of disease
24. Endocrinology, the study of hormone
25. Cytology, the study of cell
26. Histology, the study of tissue
27. Organological, the study of organ
28. Morphology, the study of form or characteristics outside the organism
29. Enzimologi, the study of enzyme
30. Fikologi Sciences, the study of algae
31. Pteridologi, the study of ferns
32. Bryologi, the study of mosses
33. Dendrology, the study of trees and other woody plants, such as lianas and shrubs
34. Paleobotany, the study of ancient plants
35. Nematologi, the study of nematodes
36. Apiari, the study of livestock including bees bees
37. Mirmekologi, the study of termite
38. Iktiologi, the study of fish
39. Harpetologi, the study of reptiles and ampibia
40. Mamologi, the study of mammalian
41. Primatology, the study of primates
42. Rodentiologi, the study of rodentia
43. Paleozoologi, the study of ancient animals
44. Pulmonology, the study of lung
45. Cardiology, the study of the heart and blood vessels
46. Radiology, science to see inside the human body using radiant or wave radiation, both electromagnetic waves and mechanical waves
47. Neurological Sciences, who deal with deviations in the nervous system
48. Virology, the study of viruses
49. Oncology, the study of cancer and its prevention
50. Enzimologi, the study of enzyme

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Thursday, July 7, 2011

Perfect Diet and Durable ?

Diet choises
Pennsylvania, United States, many people lose weight. But weight loss diet results achieved are generally rare painstakingly lasting aka yo-yo dieting because people who succeed diet fail to maintain weight loss diet results.

Though the diet that the body can not consistently give bad effects to the body. This yo-yo dieting can make someone worse shape than before he was on a diet, because it often ignores portion of the exercise or physical activity and poor diet.

A new study conducted by researchers from Penn State College of Medicine, has demonstrated that the technique is to lose weight may not be used or managed in the helps maintain ideal weight.

The study notes there are four strategies that can be done to maintain ideal body weight to keep it but did not make it decreases, as quoted from Healthland.Time, Friday (8/7/2011), namely:

1. Keep eating foods rich in protein but low in fat
2. Keep up a consistent exercise program
3. Appreciate yourself to keep your diet and exercise
4. Considering himself about why he needed to maintain weight

Nutrition and obesity experts said the principles that form the basis of losing weight and keep it the ideal is the same, namely a person should eat a healthy diet and increasing physical activity like sports.

One important thing is to maintain the mindset to start focusing on the long term and not short term, that is, make changes in lifestyle and behavior permanently so that the results obtained can last a long time.

Experts have agreed that the key to success in losing and maintaining weight loss is motivation he had. Due to this motivation will lead a person to change lifestyle and behavior gradually.

source : DETIk

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Social effects of Alcoholism

Throughout most of history, society has viewed people who drink to excess as irresponsible, immoral, and of weak character. Punishment of drunkards was considered necessary to protect the community.

By the early 1900s, experts conceded that alcohol dependence may result from tissue changes caused by the action of alcohol. These changes produce a continued need to drink, such that the individual seeks larger amounts of alcohol at more frequent intervals. However, society still regarded taking or rejecting a drink as a matter of personal decision, thus all excessive drinking was considered a voluntary act. The individual, therefore, was held responsible for his or her behavior.
Although a consensus is growing among health professionals that alcohol dependence is a disease, society’s attitudes toward individuals with drinking problems remain ambivalent and confused. Until the mid-20th century, the typical picture of the alcoholic was of someone without steady employment, unable to sustain family relationships and most likely in desperate financial straits. But this stereotype was largely dispelled when highly respected people publicly admitted their alcohol dependence and shared their successful recovery stories. Particularly critical in changing the way Americans view alcohol-use disorders were New York broker William Griffith Wilson (more familiarly known as Bill W.) and Ohio physician Robert Holbrook Smith (Dr. Bob). In 1935 these two recovered alcoholics developed a program to promote their successful philosophy for recovering from alcohol dependence. The program, which became known as Alcoholics Anonymous, has spread around the world, helping millions of members to avoid alcohol use and rebuild their lives. In the late 1970s Betty Ford, the wife of former U.S. president Gerald Ford, disclosed her struggle to recover from alcohol dependence. She helped raise the public’s understanding about alcohol dependence through her open, honest revelations and her creation of a groundbreaking treatment center for substance abusers in Rancho Mirage, California, now known as the Betty Ford Center.
Intoxication threatens not only the individual who drinks but also the surrounding community. Therefore, societies around the world have attempted to control excessive use of alcohol. Temperance societies in the 19th and 20th centuries pushed for laws ranging from arrest and jail sentences for public drunkenness to prohibition of the manufacture, distribution, and consumption of alcoholic beverages.
Today experts characterize alcohol-use disorders as a form of illness, and one so widespread that it constitutes a major public health problem. According to WHO, alcohol dependence and other alcohol-use disorders undermine global health, accounting for 3.5 percent of the total cases of disease worldwide. This figure equals the hazards posed by unsafe sex and surpasses two other formidable health foes, tobacco and illicit drugs. In the United States alone, the NIAAA estimates that alcoholism causes losses of more than $185 billion a year in lost productivity, illness, and premature death.

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Monday, July 4, 2011

Danger behind Isotonic Drinks

Isotonic drinks more incentive to invade the market. Through advertising, the product is imaged able to replace lost body fluids in a short time. Behind the impression of freshness, isotonic drinks can be dangerous if taken carelessly.

An isotonic beverage ads on television say, ions in the isotonic able to keep the skin moist and your body better than ordinary water. Another ad says, losing two percent of body fluids will decrease your stamina and concentration.
Lecturer at the Department of Food Science and Technology, Bogor Agricultural University, Frances Rungkat Zakaria, said the advertising of products isotonic partly misleading the public. In the ad, as if to drink isotonic anybody and under any conditions.
In fact, Frances warned, could not consume isotonic drinks arbitrary because it contains sodium salt (NaCl).
"Look at the label, there must be its content of Na and Cl," said Frances. He added, isotonic drink is none other than saline solution. By the manufacturer, the solution was then given additional other substances, such as vitamins. Ion which was mentioned very beneficial for the body is actually not only contained in the isotonic.
Each salt is dissolved in water, said Frances, will inevitably turn into ions Na and Cl ions.
"So, the ions contained in the vegetable lodeh with isotonic ion in the same," said Frances. As it contains salt, isotonic should not be taken lightly.
If excessive levels of salt in the body will cause high blood pressure or hypertension. "When you've got hypertension, just waiting for the part of the body is broken first," said Frances.
From food
When our bodies sweat, sodium and chloride contained in body fluids come out through the pores of the skin. If the two substances were not replaced, the cells of our bodies too long will damage and death. The problem, of which sodium and chloride substance is obtained?
Should it be of an isotonic drink? The answer is no.
According to Frances, the food we consume daily is sufficient to replace sodium and chloride out with sweat. "Every time I cook, we always use salt. That's enough to replace the salt out of the body. Even excessive, "said Frances.
He warned, in normal conditions, the adult body requires only 2.3 grams of sodium per day, whereas chloride is only 50-100 mg.
In children, it needs two substances less than adults. When we cook without salt, sodium and chloride also needs can be met from food .. He pointed out, an ounce of red meat contains 70 mg of sodium, while each 10 ounces of rice contains 10 mg of sodium. Other foodstuffs, such as eggs, chicken, beans, fruits, and vegetables, also contain sodium.
"Therefore, under normal conditions, we no longer need to replace body fluids with isotonic," said Frances. Frances reminded, consumed more suitable isotonic athletes who wrestle strenuous exercise.
Strenuous exercise in athletes, the need for sodium is higher than the average person, which is 5-7 grams per day. Even so, should be calculated in advance whether sodium and chloride are required athletes in question had acquired enough of the food consumed. If still less, may be added to the isotonic.
In developed countries, said Frances, there are agencies that examine and calculate the amount of sodium in foods consumed by athletes.
The result, which served meals three times a day it already contains 6 grams of sodium.

Although isotonic should not be taken carelessly, some isotonic product advertisements use models instead of ordinary people (not athletes) as
isotonic consumers. Isotonic beverages was also drunk at ordinary conditions, such as stuck in traffic that is not always synonymous with the release of ions to excess body.
Even mentioned, without naming the condition, isotonic better than plain water. According to Frances, such advertising is misleading the public. Manufacturers may only attract a buyer with a creative ad, but the ads have also been included clear information, not misleading information.
Manufacturers should also include beverages that contain salt warning. That consumers can make the best decision, it should be mentioned also how much salt it takes a human per day. "Indeed, manufacturers will be noisy. If the label is applied, their products will not sell.
However, do not because of economic interests, public health is at stake, "said Frances. So, although it seems refreshing, be careful if you want to consume isotonic.

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