Monday, June 20, 2011

What is the different of Usual DNA Test and Forensic DNA Test ?

Jakarta, In some particular cases such as criminal forensic DNA sometimes required examination of the victim. Actually is there a difference between the examination of DNA forensic DNA tests are normal?

"Actually, just the same as regular DNA testing, forensic DNA testing but usually if the case will be brought to court so that the force of law," says Dr. Herath Sudoyo, MD, PhD as senior researcher at the Eijkman Molecular Biological Institute on the sidelines talkshow Loreal Indonesia Fellowship For Women In Science 2011 in the House Higher Education, Jakarta, Monday (06/20/2011).

DNA or Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid is a nucleic acid that stores all information about genetics. DNA is what determines the type of hair, skin color and specific qualities of human beings.

DR Herath said DNA testing could be done for paternity checks, criminal or immigration (eg a country would not accept a person's entry if it was not his family).

"Which is used for DNA testing is part of the body of people who want to be tested and also for comparison," said researcher who received his PhD from the Monas University, Melbourne Australia 1990.

Generally, the body that is easier to do the examination is blood or cheek mucosa graft, whereas if you use the hair but can also have a higher difficulty level.

If using a blood sample is then taken and white blood cells instead of red blood cells. This is because red blood cells have no cell nucleus which is the most accurate test because the cell nucleus can not be changed.

The specimen is then extracted its DNA before it is processed by a variety of molecular techniques to identify the genomic characteristics of the locations have been determined.

The method used in DNA testing is to identify fragments of DNA itself. Or it simply is a method to identify, collect and inventory the files are typical characters of the body.

DR Herath revealed to non-priority cases took over 12 days to get results because it gives time for the laboratory to analyze, while for cases with priority as is the case then the result could bomb out within 1 day.

"Declared fit if the person's DNA with the DNA match 99.99 percent of the comparison, which is seen here is the structure of DNA is its TGCA," says Dr. Herath.

source : DETIK

Read More......

Physical effects of Alcohol

Ethyl alcohol, or ethanol, is present in varying amounts in beers and wines, and in distilled liquors such as whiskey, gin, and rum.

When a person consumes alcohol, the stomach and intestines rapidly absorb it. From there alcohol travels in the blood throughout the entire body, affecting nearly every tissue. Moderate and high doses of alcohol depress the functions of the central nervous system, including the brain. The higher the alcohol level is in the blood, the greater the impairment. 
As blood passes through the liver, enzymes break down alcohol into harmless byproducts, which are eliminated from the body six to eight hours later. But the rate at which alcohol accumulates in the body may be faster than the rate at which the body eliminates it, resulting in rising alcohol levels in the blood. Consequently, alcohol remains in the body, producing intoxicating effects hours after the last drink was swallowed.
Small amounts of alcohol may relieve tension or fatigue, increase appetite, or produce an anesthetic affect that numbs pain. Larger quantities inhibit or depress higher thought processes, bolstering self-confidence and reducing inhibition, anxiety, and guilt. As a person becomes intoxicated, painful or embarrassing situations appear less threatening and, as drinking progresses, speech may become loud and slurred. Impaired judgment may lead to incautious behavior, and physical reflexes and muscular coordination may become noticeably affected. If drinking continues, complete loss of physical control follows, ending in stupor, and possibly death.

Read More......

Wednesday, June 15, 2011

Hazardous Minerals That can Pollute Drinking Water

Drinking water
The water you drink should be free of compounds or minerals that can be dangerousand even cause death. Actually, what minerals are not allowed in drinking water?

Ben Witham (17 years) a teenager from Mount Buddy, Australia had allegedly died ofarsenic poisoning of the water consumed two months ago. Arsenic is known ashazardous compounds and levels should be kept so as not to exceed the threshold.
Arsenic kill by damaging the digestive system and cause death due to shock. Ifconsumed in a non-lethal doses can eventually cause chronic toxicity andcarcinogenic (cancer causing substances).

In the water it contains natural minerals from the environment that is not harmful to the body such as calcium, sodium, potassium or fluoride. But sometimes also foundminerals that are harmful to the body, as quoted from, Wednesday(15/06/2011).

Generally harmful minerals include inorganic mineral species because it can not be absorbed by the body so that the numbers will accumulate over time can damageorgans such as kidney and liver function to remove toxins and even to death if the dose is high.

Some inorganic minerals that should not be contained in drinking water because itcan be harmful to health such as:
1. reciprocal
2. mercury
3. iron
4. arsenic
5. magnesium
6. aluminum
7. manganese

Pollution from inorganic minerals are included in the category of chemical. Althoughthese pollutants are generally not visible, but sometimes the chemical pollutants canbe seen from the murky water color, smell, have a particular taste or yellowish.

The use of water in human life must be free of contaminants and pollutants, especiallyin drinking water. Because if the pollutants in the water enters the body it can damagethe body's system causing disturbances and even death.

Good-quality drinking water should be free from disease-causing organisms, harmful chemicals and radioactive substances as well as having good taste, colorless and odorless.

If you drink water using bleach (such as filters and activated carbon) should be replaced regularly, the cooking water to the boil and perform testing to determinewhether drinking water contains chemicals that can be harmful to the body or not.

source : DETIK

Read More......